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Rigger Trial: Witness Says Collar Stands After Sling Cut in Crane Collapse Simulation | 2010-07-14 | ENR Replica Omega

Rigger Trial: Witness Says Collar Stands After Sling Cut in Crane Collapse Simulation July 14, 2010 No Comments Reprints Although prosecutors have said the breaking of one damaged sling precipitated the March 2008 collapse of a 200-ft tower crane in New York City, a video presented by defense showed that a replica crane stayed supported after just one of its nylon straps was intentionally cut in a simulation.  

Attorneys Tuesday began their defense of master rigger William Rapetti, who was blamed for causing the crane’s collapse and faces seven counts of manslaughter. The prosecution rested its case against Rapetti on Monday.

 

One of the prosecution’s final witnesses was Frank Stokes, an engineer who observed a different test at Lehigh University’s ATLSS Engineering Research Center. Stokes testified that his tests proved that damaged and improperly fastened slings caused the collapse.

 

Refuting Stokes’ testimony for the defense was Leo Y. Lee, a Lehigh-educated independent engineer who conducted a reenactment of his own by rigging a replica crane in a vacant lot in Red Hook, Brooklyn.

 

The results of Lee’s simulation, the defense and witness said, disproved key points of the prosecution’s case against Rapetti, including the assertion that the crane collapsed after one sling “popped,” causing the other three to “fail” and the crane’s six-ton collar to freefall.

 

Lee countered that his test called for a worker to intentionally slice through one of the four slings with a utility knife, the other three slings withstood the load for over half an hour, causing the collar they were supporting only to drop eight inches.

 

Based on his own inspection of the damaged crane, Lee said that the collapse was caused by faulty tie-beams breaking on the 9th floor, rather than the 18th, the floor onto which the crane was fastened while it was being “jumped” or extended the day of the collapse.

 

Lee said the connection “was not fabricated as per the design, and it caused a tear,” where the beam was bolted.

 

The defense has repeatedly argued construction at the site was rushed to take advantage of the housing boom, in one instance causing the crane’s installation engineer Peter Stroh to “spot-weld” the tie-beams on location, rather than having them taken for precise measurements.

 

Rapetti’s attorney, Arthur Aidala, explained outside the courtroom that if the tie-beams broke from the fall of the collar, as the prosecution alleges, the beams would have a “guillotine style” cut.

 

But Lee said one of the recovered tie-beams was “twisted off,” showing evidence of poor installation.

 

While the prosecution maintained a sun-bleached and damaged Metro sling broke first, Lee opined that one of the other three Lift-All brand slings was the first to pop, which jibes with a testimony of a prior eyewitness who said he heard a “pop” from the opposite corner of the collar than the prosecution has suggested.

 

The defense was expected to rest its case on Wednesday afternoon, and Justice Roger Hayes will inspect the remnants of the fallen crane in a lot in Red Hook, Brooklyn on Thursday.

 

Adam Klasfeld

 

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Orologi Omega What Happens to Your Body During a Heart Attack? 0 • 294,428 views Disponible en Español

Story at-a-glance - According to the American Heart Association, a heart attack can occur when the blood supply cannot reach the heart due to narrowed heart arteries, commonly known as ischemic heart disease About 735,000 Americans suffer from heart attack every year, 15 percent of which succumb to death Some people may experience mild or no symptoms of heart attack at all – this is called silent heart attack. It happens mostly to people with diabetes Heart attack patients say that the pain they experienced was like a clamp squeezing their chest, and may last from several minutes to many hours

By Dr. Mercola

A heart attack can strike suddenly. Its symptoms are quite common, and many people don't initially realize that they're already having one. At times, there may be only ONE symptom and this makes the heart attack even more difficult to diagnose.

But what really happens when you have a heart attack? Read on to find out more.

What Is a Heart Attack?

The heart is an extraordinary organ that can still function even when detached from your body, as long as it has an adequate supply of oxygen. 1 It must work relentlessly to pump blood throughout your body.

(For more interesting facts about the human heart, I recommend you to check out my infographic below.)

Click Here Embed this infographic on your website:

<img src="http://media./assets/images/infographic/human-heart-facts.jpg" alt="human heart facts" border="0" style="max-width:100%; min-width:300px; margin: 0 auto 20px auto; display:block;" /> <p style="max-width:800px; min-width:300px; margin:0 auto; text-align:center;">If you want to know how incredibly important - and complex - the human heart is, check out this interesting infographic: <a href="http://www./infographics/human-heart-facts.htm"><strong><br /> 11 Fascinating Facts About the Human Heart</strong></a><strong>.</strong> Use the embed code to share it on your website or visit our infographic page for the high-res version.</p><pre style="max-width:800px; min-width:300px; margin: 20px auto 0 auto; padding:10px; border:solid 1px #999999; background: #ffffff; white-space: pre-wrap; word-wrap:break-word;"><code>&lt;img src="http://media./assets/images/infographic/human-heart-facts.jpg" alt="human heart facts" border="0" style="max-width:100%; min-width:300px; margin: 0 auto 20px auto; display:block;"&gt;&lt;p style="max-width:800px; min-width:300px; margin:0 auto; text-align:center;"&gt;If you want to know how incredibly important - and complex - the human heart is, check out this interesting infographic: &lt;a href="http://www./infographics/human-heart-facts.htm"&gt;&lt;strong&gt;11 Fascinating Facts About the Human Heart.&lt;/a&gt;&lt;/strong&gt; Visit our infographic page for the high-res version.</code></pre> Click on the code area and press CTRL + C (for Windows) / CMD + C (for Macintosh) to copy the code.

It's vital that your heart receives ample oxygenated blood and the heart muscle can die if it receives an insufficient amount. The loss of blood supply may occur when plaque builds up in your coronary arteries and blocks the blood's flow to your heart. Plaque is made up of cholesterol, fatty substances, cellular waste, calcium, and fibrin.

When plaque builds up in your coronary arteries, it can result in coronary artery spasm or atherosclerosis, which is the tightening or hardening of heart muscles and can lead to a blood clot when the plaque ruptures. 2 , 3 Atherosclerosis can lead to coronary heart disease, which  can trigger a heart attack. 4

According to the American Heart Association, a heart attack can also occur when the blood supply cannot reach the heart due to narrowed heart arteries, commonly known as ischemic heart disease. 5

An Unconventional Perspective on Heart Attack

In an article published last December 2014, I featured Dr. Thomas S. Cowan who gave us a different perspective on how heart attacks occur . He said that a heart attack occurs not because your coronary arteries are blocked, but rather it is caused by an imbalance in the parasympathetic and sympathetic sections of your central nervous system. 

Stress is a major reason for the imbalance in your central nervous system. When you experience chronic stress, an emotional sensor will activate your sympathetic nervous system. When your parasympathetic nervous system does not compensate for it, this will result in an unexpected release of adrenalin, a hormone that breaks down the myocardial cells, affecting the blood flow needed by your heart. Hence, a heart attack occurs.

The Difference Between a Heart Attack and Cardiac Arrest

It is important to  know the difference between a heart attack and cardiac arrest since people are often under the mistaken impression that they are the same. Cardiac arrest happens due to the electrical malfunction of your heart, which causes an irregular heartbeat and usually occur without any warning.

Cardiac arrest is caused by different health reasons like cardiomyopathy or thickened heart muscle, heart failure, arrhythmias, long Q-T syndrome, and ventricular fibrillation. A heart attack may increase the risk of having a cardiac arrest, and is the common reason for its occurrence. 6

What Happens During a Heart Attack?

Ever wondered what happens during a heart attack? Let's dig deeper into what really goes on inside your body during a heart attack, and the role that plaque plays in this fatal condition.

If your heart has been accumulating plaque over the years, it can thicken enough to obstruct your blood flow. You might not readily notice that you already have a narrowed blood flow, because once a coronary artery becomes incapable of bringing blood to your heart, other coronary arteries expand to take care of the incapacitated artery's job.

Plaque is covered in a solid fibrous cap on the outside but its inside is soft due to its fatty contents. 7 If the plaque in your coronary artery is ruptured, the fatty substances become exposed. Platelets rush to the plaque, forming a blood clot (the same thing that happens when you get a cut or any laceration).

The blood clot formed becomes the main obstruction to your blood flow. Your heart becomes starved of oxygen-rich blood, and your nervous system immediately sends signal to your brain about what's going on. You will start sweating and your heart rate will speed up. You will also feel nauseous and weak.

As your nervous system sends signals to your spinal cord, your other body parts start to ache. You will start feeling an immense chest pain that slowly crawls to your neck, jaw, ears, arms, wrists, shoulder blades, back, and even in your abdomen. Heart attack patients say that the pain they experienced was like a clamp squeezing their chest, and may last from several minutes to many hours.

Your heart's tissues will die if you're not given proper treatment right away. If your heart has stopped beating completely, your brain cells will die in a span of just three to seven minutes. If you are treated immediately, your heart will start to heal but the damaged tissue will never work again resulting in a permanent slow blood flow. 8

Heart Attack Risk Factors

Every year, 1 in 4 Americans die from heart disease, making it one of the leading causes of death in the US. 9  About 735,000 Americans suffer from heart attack every year, 15 percent of which succumb to death. 10 With these frightening statistics, you should pay close attention to the following risk factors for a heart attack: 11

Age . Men who are 45 years old or older and women who are 55 years old or older are at high risk. Tobacco . Prolonged exposure to second-hand smoke puts you on a high risk for cardiovascular disease. High cholesterol levels . If you have high levels of triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL), it is likely that you have a greater risk for a heart attack. Diabetes , especially if it goes untreated. Family history of heart attack . If someone in your family has a history of heart attack, you may also have it. Sedentary lifestyle . Being physically inactive leads to high bad cholesterol levels that may lead to plaque formation. Obesity . If you lose 10 percent of your body weight, you also lower your risk for a heart attack. Stress . German researchers found that once you experience stress, your white blood cell levels increase. These in turn raise your risk of developing atherosclerosis and plaque rupture. 12 , 13 , 14 Illegal drug use . Using cocaine or amphetamines may cause coronary artery spasm. Preeclampsia history . If you have experienced high blood pressure during pregnancy, your risk of having a heart attack is high. History of autoimmune disease , such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus .

If you have any of these risk factors, I strongly suggest that you pay a visit to your physician to keep you at bay from heart attack or any cardiovascular disease.

Signs and Symptoms of a Heart Attack

Some people may experience mild or no symptoms of heart attack at all – this is called silent heart attack. It happens mostly to people with diabetes.

In order to prevent premature heart disease-related death from happening to you, take note of other common symptoms of this deadly condition: 15

1. Chest pain or discomfort . This is the most common symptom when having a heart attack. Some people may experience a sudden sharp pain, while some may feel just a mild pain. This may last for a couple of minutes or up to a few hours.

2. Upper body discomfort . You may feel distress or uneasiness in your arms, back, shoulder, neck, jaw, or in the upper part of your stomach.

3. Shortness of breath . Some people may experience this symptom only, or it may happen alongside chest pain.

4. Cold sweat , nausea, vomiting, and sudden dizziness . These symptoms are more common among women.

5. Unusual tiredness . You may feel weary for unknown reasons, and sometimes it will last for days.

Older people who may experience one or more of these symptoms usually just shrug these off, thinking that these are just signs of aging. However, if you experience one or more of these symptoms, have someone call an ambulance immediately. 

How to Prevent a Heart Attack

Most cardiovascular diseases are preventable. I recommend these lifestyle practices to help you avoid a heart attack or any heart disease:

1. Eat a healthy diet.

A heart-healthy diet does not mean entirely avoiding fats and cholesterol. As opposed to popular belief, saturated fats and "large, fluffy" low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are actually good for your body since they are your body's natural source for energy.

You also have to avoid consumption of processed foods, refined carbs, sugar (especially fructose ), and trans fats since they help increase "small" LDL, which contributes to plaque buildup.

I recommend the following healthy diet strategies:

Focus on fresh and organic, whole foods Limit fructose consumption to 25 grams each day. If you have diabetes, hypertension, or if you're insulin resistant, keep your fructose level below 15 grams per day Avoid artificial sweeteners Remove gluten and other allergenic foods from your meals Include naturally fermented foods in your diet like dairy and cultured vegetables Balance your omega-3 to omega-6 fat ratio by eating wild-caught Alaskan salmon or taking a krill oil supplement Always drink pure water Eat high-quality saturated and monounsaturated fats from pasture-raised animals and krill oil Consume high-quality protein from organically raised animals

Eating healthy may not be enough to keep safe from a heart attack – remember, it's also important to observe how often you eat. That being said, I recommend intermittent fasting that limits your daily eating to an eight-hour window. It helps your body reprogram itself and remember how to burn fat for energy.

2. Exercise regularly .

It is essential that while you are loading up on healthy foods, you are also spending at least 2.5 hours per week doing exercises.  I recommend doing high intensity interval exercise , as it offers many benefits not only for your heart but also for your general health and overall wellness. But be sure that you rest after each session to achieve best results.

3. Quit smoking .

The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has included quiting smoking as a measure to prevent cardiovascular diseases, which may lead to a heart attack. Smoking causes your blood vessels to narrow and thicken. It also causes blood clots to form that may lead to blood flow blockage to your heart. 16

4. Avoid alcohol consumption .

Alcohol is high in empty calories and actually makes you fat. Drinking alcohol stops your body from burning fats and calories. As a result, the food that you just ate becomes stored fat.  Alcohol also damages your prefrontal cortex, which promotes impulsive eating. In order to maintain optimal health, I suggest eradicating all forms of alcohol from your lifestyle.

5. Sit as little as possible .

Long hours of sitting have detrimental effects on your health such as a 50 percent increased risk of lung cancer and 90 percent increased risk of type 2 diabetes. To maintain an active lifestyle at home or even at work, I recommend walking 7,000 to 10,000 steps each day. Using a fitness tracker like Jawbone's Up3 also helps track all your activities for the whole day.

6. Optimize your vitamin D levels .

It is essential that you have your vitamin D levels tested annually as a deficiency of this vitamin increases your risk for a heart attack by 50 percent. In order to get its health benefits, you must maintain a level of 40 ng/ml or 5,000-6,000 IUs per day. I highly recommend sun exposure as your best source of vitamin D, although some foods and vitamin D3 supplements are considered to be good sources as well.

7. Try grounding/Earthing .

Walking bare foot transfers free electrons, which are potent antioxidants, from the earth to your body. Grounding also reduces inflammation throughout your body, as it thins your blood and fills you with negatively charged ions.

8. Free yourself from stress .

A study published in mBio 17 , 18 showed that when you're stressed, your body releases norepinephrine. This hormone causes the dispersal of bacterial biofilms that result in plaque rupture. 

I highly recommend doing Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) in managing your stress. EFT is an energy psychology tool that helps reset your body's reaction in times of stress. This can reduce your risk of developing chronic illnesses. 

Keeping your heart healthy undeniably makes your life more enjoyable and fruitful. Remember these wholesome, commonsense strategies so you can avoid a heart attack and keep your cardiovascular system performing at its best.

Health Questions Directory

0 + Sources and References 1   Random Facts, 36 Interesting Facts About the Human Heart 2   Medical News Today, September 8, 2014 3   American Heart Association, Atherosclerosis 4   Web MD, Atherosclerosis and Coronary Artery Disease 5   American Heart Association, Silent Ischemia and Ischemic Heart Disease 6   American Heart Association, Heart Attack or Sudden Cardiac Arrest: How Are They Different? 7   Cleveland Clinic, What Is a Heart Attack? 8   How Stuff Works, What Exactly Happens During a Heart Attack? 9   Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Heart Disease Facts 10   Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Know the Signs and Symptoms of a Heart Attack 11   Mayo Clinic, Heart Attack Risk Factors 12   Nature Medicine June 22, 2014 [Epub ahead of print] 13   Techsonia June 25, 2014 14   Natureasia.com June 23, 2014 15   National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, What Are the Symptoms of a Heart Attack? 16   Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Smoking and Heart Disease and Stroke 17   mBio June 10, 2014: 5(3); e01206-14 18   ASM.org June 10, 2014

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